how is a root hair cell specialised for its function. Although they lack a circulatory system, plants still need a way to move nutrients, water, and minerals throughout their bodies.
Xylem transports water and mineral ions from the roots to the leaves, while phloem transports food substances like sucrose (sugar) and amino acids from the leaves to the rest of the plant. The term “translocation” describes the process by which food is moved. Cells in both of these systems form tubes that extend the entire length of the plant, from the ground up through the stem and leaves. They function similarly to a plant’s circulatory system.
Plants use osmosis to draw water up from the ground. They actively transport the mineral ions into their cells against the concentration gradient. Root hair cells are specialized for absorbing water and minerals by having a large surface area, which speeds up the process. In addition, they have a high number of mitochondria, which respire glucose and release the energy used for movement.
Water is used in various ways throughout the plant, including as a reactant in photosynthesis, a structural component in the plant’s leaves and stems, a means of keeping the plant’s temperature down through evaporation, and a means of transporting dissolved minerals throughout the plant.
A leaf’s underside contains microscopic openings called stomata. They open and close to regulate air and water flow. They function to transport water vapor and oxygen from the leaf and carbon dioxide into it.
Due to the reduced need for watering, plants in arid regions have fewer, smaller stomata, and they are typically located only on the underside of the leaves. Each stoma is surrounded by two sausage-shaped guard cells, which are responsible for controlling the stoma’s opening size. Water is absorbed by osmosis in the strong light, making the guard cells swollen and robust. When there is not enough light, the guard cells dry out and the stomata close. In normal circumstances, they would only shut when the sun went down and photosynthesis no longer required carbon dioxide. Specifically, guard cells in a leaf are adapted to their role by having pores that allow gas exchange and by having stomatal closures that limit water loss.